In the second half of the XII century. appear in Sudak messengers Byzantine state - the Venetians and the Genoese and Pizantinians . They start trading actively with the Russians, Central Asian and Polovtsian merchants. Gradually, it was the Genoese seized the entire coast of the Bosporus (Kerch) to the Chersonese (modern district of Sevastopol). Kafa (Feodosia) became the capital of their colony in the Crimea, Sudak - the military base.
At the site has come down to our time Sudak fortress located more ancient fortifications VI century, which were completed and integrated into a single fort by the Genoese in XIV-XV centuries.
Successful location of the Genoese fortress and strong fortifications made almost impregnable fortress: Fortress difficult to obtain from the west, south and east of the fortress to protect steep walls of the mountain, descending to the sea from the north-east, dug a deep ditch.
In the Genoese fortress two layers of defense - the top and bottom. The lower tier is protected by a wall height of 6-8 m and 1.5-2 m thick. Wall reinforced by fourteen towers fighting a height of 15 meters and complex main gate. Each tower was called the name of the consul, in which it was built, this was preserved in some towers of plates with heraldic symbols and inscriptions in medieval Latin.
The upper tier defense included a tower and Consular castle, connected in a complex wall, running along the very crest of the mountains, as well as complex watchtower. Watch tower stands at the top of the mountain and its majestic panorama across the valley of Sudak. And with good visibility you can see the distant mountain Ayu-Dag, and even - for her - the silhouette of the teeth of Ai-Petri. This tower is very interesting in terms of engineering solutions. First - a fairly narrow corridor length of approximately 5 meters. Then - a high threshold, and traces of several doorways.
Between the upper and lower tiers of the defense settled down a city that has always been the position for enhanced protection. The Consul had no right to hold a single night outside the city. He has held positions at the same time the commandant of the fortress, garrison commander, and financial manager.
Discovering the fortress should start from the main gate and then go to the east. Inside - the eyes diverge: the picturesque ruins, exotic buildings. Everywhere is clearly felt the breath of time. Attention, of course, immediately engage the towers. To the west of the gate tower is Jacobo Thorsell. To the east is adjacent to the gate tower Beriabo Di Franco Di Pagano. Architecturally notable for its unusual history and an ancient mosque. The building embodies the noble proportions and creates a sense of ease and in space.
For the ancient mosque, you will see the Consular castle. This is a whole complex of buildings, the most interesting surviving in the fortress. The main tower - dungeon - takes all the space transverse to the cliff rocks. The second powerful battle tower is located in the northeast corner of the castle. Both towers are connected by thick walls between them lies a courtyard. In one of the walls (Western) - a number of loopholes, which went along the wooden platform for the shooters.
Inside the keep - Consular tower - can be accessed by a stone staircase, built later. In the basement - two rooms. The West has a loophole at the top. East room from the inside is lined with neatly pritesannymi stones, believe that this water tank. From the main (Consular) of the tower on the south-west wall is stretched, which is adjacent to the St. George Tower with built her porch. In several places, seen embedded in the wall crosses. On the first floor - a niche with a rounded top type of shrine. A small plate over it once adorned the bas-relief image of a rider on horseback. The bas-relief is smoothed time, but traditionally believed that this image of Saint George, hence the name of the tower - St George.
Currently, the Genoese fortress is under state protection, it is a branch of the Kiev Architectural and Historical Reserve "Sophia Museum." On its territory are carried out research and restoration work.
Time and war did not spare itself, and the castle. Many of its fortifications destroyed during the many storms, or decayed and collapsed themselves. Now the fortress of Sudak you can see only part of the buildings, talking about her former invincibility and greatness. This is the main gate, some towers (among them including St George's Tower, Tower Corrado Chica Tower Thorsell), the temple-mosque, temple of the Twelve Apostles, a warehouse and the remnants of the barracks.
In addition, the remains of the fortress of the two barracks Kirillov shelf, built in the XVIII century on the orders of Potemkin. Before them are two old cannons.
Outside the walls is another tower - Federico Astagvera (Port). At the time of the Genoese, it was connected a wall with a corner tower of the fortress and the tower, which stood on Mount Palvanov-two. This line of defense protecting the territory of the old port Federico.